Philippine serial colonialism left indelible marks in the consciousness of the Filipino nation and thus may be considered as cultural trauma. The large volume of literary works focusing on the issue of colonialism demonstrates the impact of this trauma and exhibits what in trauma studies is called repetition. This study distinguishes the repetition presented in Virginia Moreno’s The Onyx Wolf because it indicates working-through and appropriates the concept to the Filipino context. The Filipino word balik embodies this unique form of repetition. Specifically, the Philippine experience of repetition as displayed in The Onyx Wolf involves pagpapabalik-balik (going back and forth), pagbalik (striking back and giving back), and finally pagbabalik (coming home).
Tomintz, A. M. D. (2020). Pag-balik: The dynamics of repetition in Virginia Moreno’s The Onyx Wolf. UNITAS, 93(2), 213–234. https://unitasust.net/volumes/volume-93/