A Comparison of Russian and Philippine Secondary School Students on Their Sociomotivational Relationships in School: A Motivation Typology

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Previous cross-national studies on social motivation among secondary students from individualistic societies such as Germany and Canada found four different motivation types (MT) varying in class size: (a) teacher-dependent MT, (b) peer-dependent MT, (c) teacher- and peer-dependent MT, and (d) teacher- and peer-independent MT. The current cross-national study expands the knowledge on the Motivation Typology by examining students from collectivistic countries such as the Russian Federation (n = 396) and the Philippines (n = 1014). By applying a multigroup confirmatory latent class analysis (MCLCA) in Mplus, to identify latent groups with similar response patterns, four different motivation types were confirmed, which varied in their class size considerably. While in Russia the majority of students were assigned to the teacher- and peer-dependent MT (about 57%), most of the students from the Philippines were assigned to the teacher- and peer-independent MT (about 85%). These results indicate that students from diverse collectivist backgrounds perceive their sociomotivational relationships related to motivation quite differently.