Document Type


Publication Date



This study draws on empirical data to fine-tune the theoretical concept, ‘bridging civic identity’, which we propose as an educational aim in conflict-affected settings. We analyse interview data from Liberian respondents and North Korean migrants living in South Korea, using a conceptual framework based on the notions of ‘bridge citizens’ and agency. The analysis reveals the following: (1) that a high sense of agency is related to resourcefulness and fortitude, (2) that identifying oneself as a ‘bridge citizen’ is connected to recognising others as such, and (3) that concrete, large-scale aspirations of social justice for the larger community – and therefore ‘imaginativeness’ – are central components of a bridging civic identity. The findings suggest that learners in similar settings ought to be trained in resourcefulness and fortitude, be shown the collective nature of working towards shared goals, and be given encouragement to visualise the just future they desire for their community or nation.