Material resources, school climate, and achievement variations in the Philippines: Insights from PISA 2018

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Educational reform programs usually institute systemwide changes. However, this assumption of similar school problems mask variations between schools and students. The 2018 Philippine PISA data (n = 7233) reveal salient variations in academic achievement that happen between schools and among students. Between schools, material resource and school climate problems have different origins and influence depending on school type and location, while among students, gender and socioeconomic status act as predictors but fail to fully explain the variation. This has implications for school-specific investments for material resource and school climate improvement, and student-specific interventions that detect and instruct those who are lagging behind.