Integration of Engineering Design Process in Biology Through Web-Based Learning to Demonstrate Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Science Education



First Advisor

Catherine Genevieve B. Lagunzad, PhD; Ma. Mercedes T. Rodrigo, PhD


Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) is one of the tracks the students can take after junior high school. Since the implementation of Senior High School (SHS) in 2016, emphasis in the technology and engineering portion of the STEM curriculum had been receiving less attention which are evident on the competencies and courses set by the Department of Education. Along with the challenges in the education sector brought by the global pandemic, COVID-19, these paved way to the integration of engineering principles in an online setting through incorporating Engineering Design Process. Studies show that this iterative process is effective in introducing engineering principles to students which also enhance their higher order thinking skills. The study aimed to introduce EDP to SHS students in their course General Biology 1 through a Learning Management System (LMS), Canvas. A researcher-made web-based module adapted from Mangold and Robinson using three- phase approach was utilized by 29 SHS STEM students of a private high school in Manila where they were introduced to EDP and created their design solutions following its steps. Mixed-method approach was utilized where students’ perceptions, experiences as well as participations were gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD), pre- and post- surveys, demographic profiling and canvas analytics. Data gathered were analyzed through thematic analysis which comprises the qualitative component while descriptive statistics as well as correlation analysis were utilized for the quantitative data. Results showed that a well-design web-based module were beneficial to students’ learning in an online set-up. The data also revealed that students’ age, gender and device used have no correlation on students participation in LMS at v p<.05, with p-values of 0.509, 0.785, and 0.160 respectively. However, internet connection showed a significant relationship with students’ engagements at p<.05 (p=0.027). Higher-order thinking skills such as critical thinking and problem-solving were also demonstrated on the 3D designs created based on the adapted EDP rubric.

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