Contributions to Philippine Ephemeroptera: Species Catalogue, Nymph Identification Key and Integrative Taxonomic Framework of Teloganodidae with Description of New Species

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Biology (Standard Program)



First Advisor

Dr. rer. nat. Hendrik FreitagDr. rer. nat Crisanto M. Lopez


One of the widely collected and represented insect order in freshwater biomonitoring projects is Ephemeroptera or mayfly. Like most of the freshwater fauna in the Philippines, there is no consolidated reference or monograph that can serve as taxonomic and distribution guide for Philippine Ephemeroptera. The aim of this dissertation is to establish methodology strategies that will help in increasing the taxonomic knowledge of this group. Specifically, this study provides an updated catalogue of nominal species, created a dichotomous key for identification up to subgenus level, and demonstrated an integrative taxonomic pipeline for species discovery. Nine families are present in the Philippines, namely Baetidae, Caenidae, Ephemeridae, Heptageniidae, Leptophlebiidae, Neoephemeridae, Prosopistomatidae, Teloganodidae and Tricorythidae. Moreover, twelve genera/subgenera, namely Alainites, Bungona (Centroptella), Bungona (Chopralla), Choroterpes (Choroterpes), Choroterpes (Euthraulus), Choroterpes (Monochoroterpes), Dipterophlebiodes, Habrophlebiodes, Isca, Nigrobaetis and Procerobaetis are recoded for the first time from the Philippines. As an integral part of the freshwater ecosystem and indispensable necessity for biomonitoring projects, the updated catalogue and key for Philippine Ephemeroptera is useful and instrumental in the development of a Philippine Biotic Index for monitoring the health of freshwater ecosystems. An integrative taxonomic approach was performed on Philippine Dudgeodes (Teloganodidae). Partial COI mtDNA sequences were used as an initial clustering method to delimit putative species. The framework not only served as an initial clustering method but also allowed unprejudiced examination of characters with high intraspecific variability. Six new species were formally named and described in detail in this contribution, all known from the nymph stage: Dudgeodes bauernfeindi Garces & Sartori, 2020, D. freitagi v Garces & Sartori, 2020, D. luntian Garces & Sartori, 2020, D. pangantihoni Garces & Sartori, 2020, D. tabang Garces & Sartori, 2020 and D. vonrinteleni Garces & Sartori, 2020. A key to the nymphs of Philippine Dudgeodes species is also provided. The taxonomic pipeline employed in Dudgeodes allowed for an efficient nymph-based species description and can serve as a framework for sustainable biodiversity research in the Philippines.

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