The Spiral Progression of Earth and Space Concepts in Philippine Junior High School Curriculum Materials: A Content Analysis

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Science Education



First Advisor

Joel T. Maquiling, PhD Cornelia C. Soto, PhD


An in-depth knowledge of the Earth’s structure and processes, as well as a systematic understanding of basic astronomy, is important for sustainability. One of the main features of the K to 12 Curriculum is the spiral progression of lessons. Spiral progression gradually increases the breadth and depth of a key concept and allows students to develop a more profound understanding of concepts. Several perception studies show that teachers cannot seem to trace the presence of spiral progression in the K to 12 Curriculum. Moreover, there is a dearth of empirical studies on the level and degree of curricular use of spiral progression. This study aims to evaluate the extent of spiral progression of Earth and Space science concepts in the K to 12 Junior High School (JHS) curriculum through concept-driven content analysis. From the 1283 pages of analysis units examined, 515 coding units were identified. Five key questions (KQs), modified and adapted from Bain and Siddique (2017), were used to analyze the Curriculum Guide (CG), Learner’s Materials (LMs), and Teacher’s Guides (TGs). A total of 195 coded responses were summarized using descriptive statistics with an inter- coder reliability of κ = 0.866, p-value < 0.001. Results reveal a weak to moderate spiral progression of Earth and Space science concepts in the JHS. Among the subdomains, Astronomy shows the weakest spiral progression while Meteorology exhibits the strongest. To address the low level of spiral progression, a progression map was prepared which identified concepts that may be revisited, lessons and topics that may be elaborated, and level of cognitive processes that may be deepened. The findings of this study may serve as a tool to enhance the teaching and learning process.

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