Biology students' academic achievement and attitude in the flipped classroom

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Science Education



First Advisor

Lagunzad, Catherine G.B., Ph.D


This study used quasi-experimental design to quantitatively analyze the effects of flipped classroom model in students' academic achievement and attitudes towards biology. Flipped classroom is a specific model of blended learning that involves online delivery of content and instruction while students are at home or outside the school, combined with face-to-face teacher guided instruction where students' complete projects and tasks inside the classroom. This study also involves the development of appropriate learning materials, questionnaires and other instruments, which were utilized to teach molecular genetics as part of Grade 10 Science Curriculum. Two randomly assigned groups of students have participated in this research: (1) the traditional group (TG, n=40) and; (2) the flipped classroom group (FCG, n=40). The traditional group was taught through the conventional way of teaching, while the flipped classroom group was taught through the flipped classroom model. A researcher-made pretest and posttest were used by the students, wherein the pretest served as the baseline for matching the students' abilities, together with their OLSAT IQ scores, while the posttest served as the basis for measuring academic achievement after the discussion and intervention. The two groups also answered a researcher-made attitudinal questionnaire about their interest and levels of confidence in biology. The questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention to provide contextual information that can complement academic performance measures. In the quantitative analysis of data, descriptive statistics was used, through mean values and standard deviations. Also, inferential statistics such as two-sample t test was used to determine any significant difference among the data between the two groups and within each group. In addition, Pearson r correlation was used to determine the correlation between the students' posttest performance and their levels of interest and confidence.The TG and FCG posttest results showed statistically significant difference (t (77.996) = 5.834, p< .001), in favor of the FCG, where students performed better in both lower and higher order thinking skills. FCG also have significantly higher gain scores than TG. The overall attitude of students towards biology also showed significant improvement (t (76.450) = 6.740, p< 0.001) after exposure to the flipped classroom. While both TG and FCG share the same level of interest even after the intervention, FCG gained a significantly higher level of confidence in the subject matter. Moreover, a very strong positive relationship between the students' attitude and achievement was also observed, which suggests that exposure to flipped classroom instruction developed a more positive attitude in students that resulted to better academic performance.These findings reveal that flipped classroom instruction enhances students' academic achievement in biology, as well as their levels of interest and confidence towards biology. In addition to statistically significant results, the statements of the teacher observers generally perceived the flipped classroom approach as a novel way of teaching that promotes highly evident collaborative and active student-teacher and student-student interactions. Flipped classroom instruction also provides avenues for the students to be participative in class, and to articulate their ideas during small group discussions.


The B5.M357 2017