Traceology is one of the main methods for identifying the functions of ancient tools, characteristics of production activities, reconstructions of the features of paleo-economic systems. Books by S.A. Semenov, the founder of this direction in archaeology, as well as works by his students and followers in Russia and abroad, also made a signifi cant contribution to the discussion of the issues of adaptation to the natural environment, cultural and cognitive development of man. At present, the possibilities of traditional integrated experimental and traceological research have expanded signifi cantly due to digital technology, 3D-scanning, an increase in the experimental reference base, and the use of data from the natural sciences. This allows us to study tools made of various materials---stone, metal, organics--- relating not only to the Stone Age, but also to later historical eras.
N. Skakun, M. Galimova, I. Gorashuk, T. Bostanova, A. Pawlik, M. Zhilin, V. Terekhina, B. Mateva, C Gutierrez, P. Munoz Moro, (2020), Results of the experimental and use-wear studies carried out in the Archaeological Summer School in Bulgar (Republic of Tatarstan). Archaeology of the Eurasian Steppes, 3, 323-329.