Education and parenting in the Philippines

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Filipino families place a high value on children’s educational achievement. Providing for children’s education is a primary goal of Filipino parents and conversely, children consider educational success as the means by which they can meet filial obligations and parental expectations. Interdependence in Filipino families is such that education-related decisions and behaviors reflect on family rather than individual welfare. This chapter presents the current Philippine education system and its challenges vis-a-vis this cultural context of the Filipino family, focusing particularly on families belonging to the lower socioeconomic class. Major education reforms known as the K-12 law occurred in 2013, expanding basic education to 13 years, but issues with low quality and ineffective resource allocation remain. Poverty has significant effects on student enrollment and completion rates, especially at the secondary or high school level. Given socioeconomic constraints, Filipino parents employ strategies to meet their family’s education aspirations, such as overseas migration.