Cultural Values, Parenting and Child Adjustment in the Philippines

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This study examined whether Filipino mothers' and fathers' cultural values, namely individualism, collectivism and conformity values; are associated with parental warmth, rules/limit-setting and expectations of family obligations; and child internalising and externalising behaviours. Children (n = 103; Mage = 10.52, SDage = .44) and their mothers (n = 100) and fathers (n = 79) from urban Metro Manila, Philippines, responded to self-report measures orally or in writing. Mothers' collectivistic values, and fathers' individualistic and collectivistic values, were positively associated with expectations for children's familial obligations. Fathers' individualist values predicted lower internalising behaviours in children, whereas the valuing of conformity predicted greater paternal warmth. Future research on cultural values should unpack their dynamic meanings, processes and associations with parenting behaviours and child adjustment.