Examining Employee Experiences of Hybrid Work: An Ecological Approach

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the various forms of organizational and team-level actions that were perceived to be helpful or not helpful by employees as they navigate the hybrid work arrangements and how these had an impact on their work behaviors and experiences. This research utilized Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory as framework.


The exploratory study used a qualitative approach in gathering data via online survey from a total of 45 Filipino employees working in a hybrid work arrangement for at least three months. The analysis utilized both inductive and deductive methodologies in examining the data. Inductive thematic analysis was used in coding the data based on the participants' responses, while the deductive approach ensured that the themes are aligned with the research questions and reflect the different systems within Bronfenbrenner's EST (1986).


Results surfaced helpful organizational (e.g. provision of work tools, financial assistance, supportive policies and engagement and wellness initiatives) and team level actions (i.e. use of technology-based communication tools, open virtual door policy, effective performance management system, employee care practices and team engagement activities). Actions that were perceived as not helpful include inadequate technological infrastructure, poor communication, insufficient training, punitive policies/practices and leadership issues at the organizational level as well as unresponsive colleagues and ineffective implementation of policies/processes at the level of teams. Employees reported being able to build on savings, becoming more productive and having greater work–life balance amid hybrid work. However, they continue to be challenged by blurred boundaries and inability to disconnect from work similar to when work was done remotely and now with sustaining momentum given the shifts on where they do their work.

Practical implications

The findings of this study may guide programs and initiatives of human resource management practitioners and organizational leaders as they support employees in navigating through hybrid work.


The research expands extant knowledge on practices and experiences in hybrid work (Gifford, 2022). It also contributes to studies on human resource management that are nuanced based on where work is performed (Ng and Stanton, 2023) or with emerging work arrangements.