Four Domains Of Parenting In The Philippines

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This chapter presents patterns of change over time in Filipino parents’ warmth; behavioral control; and monitoring (rule-setting and knowledge solicitation); as children develop from ages 8 to 16. Mothers; fathers; and a focal child (N=120) residing in an urban city in Metro Manila were assessed for eight consecutive years. We found that Filipino parenting behaviors were characterized by different trajectories over middle childhood and adolescence. Parent warmth and behavioral control were defined by linear trajectories that decreased slightly at a constant rate over time. Parent rule-setting and knowledge solicitation were defined by quadratic trajectories that increased initially until age 12; before slightly decreasing over time. Parent years of education was significantly associated with the trajectories of warmth; rule-setting; and knowledge solicitation; in that more educated parents exhibited higher warmth across time; and also engaged in more rule-setting and knowledge solicitation in adolescence compared to parents with less education. Levels of behavioral control varied in accord with mother and father age at the child’s birth; with older mothers reporting higher control than younger mothers at age 8; but decreasing control as the child grew to age 16; fathers showed the opposite trend; with older fathers exhibiting lower control when the child was 8; and increasing control thereafter.