Managing Human Resources in Information Technology and Business Process Offshoring Firms Operating in Asia: A Literature Review Toward Theoretically and Contextually Grounded Research

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The information technology and business process (IT&BP) offshoring sector in Asia continues to experience internal challenges and pressures from the external environment that lead to employee attrition. Despite the many human resources (HR)-related interventions and practices, there remains a considerable turnover rate, not just within individual firms but across the entire IT&BP offshoring industry. We therefore question the current state of HR management within the sector and review the literature from 2000 to 2020. Utilizing the antecedents, decisions, and outcomes (ADO) organizing framework, we synthesize the different HR practices, their antecedents, and their outcomes. Our synthesis enables us to identify areas for future research, guided by the ADO framework, such as strengthening the theoretical grounding for the investigation of HR practices, greater contextualization regarding Asian culture, and acknowledgement of recent and emerging trends. These avenues can both build knowledge and inform practice as to how to effectively manage HR in the IT&BP offshoring sector in Asia, thereby reducing the high employee attrition rates.