Variable Bessel Beam Profiles Generated through Refraction by Liquid Media

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Various methods have been employed to produce Bessel beams (BBs), with axicon-based techniques remaining the most efficient. Among the limitations of axicons are manufacturing defects such as oblate tips and difficulty in tuning the generated BBs. In this work, we combine the effect of a blunt-tip axicon with refraction using various combinations of liquid media to generate variable BB intensity profiles. The output BBs from the axicon are made to pass through a custom-built fluid chamber and magnified using a telescope system. When traversing an empty chamber, the Bessel beam core diameter is measured to be 773.8 µm at propagation distance z’ = 30 cm. The core diameter increases as the beam passes through a chamber containing different liquids as a result of an effective axicon–telescope distance produced by the indices of refraction of the pertinent fluids. Bessel beams modified by the fluid chamber maintain the properties of non-diffraction and self-healing.