This present study aims to determine the performance of using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, coupled with the urban canopy models (UCMs), in simulating the 2 m air temperature and 2 m relative humidity in Metro Manila. The simulation was performed during a high heat event on 22–29 April 2018, which coincided with the dry season in the Philippines. The four urban canopy model options that were used in this study include, the bulk (no urban), SLUCM, BEP, and BEM. The results of the simulations were compared with the hourly observations from three weather stations over Metro Manila from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Integrated Surface Dataset (ISD) and one agrometeorological station in Naic, Cavite. After model validation, the urban heat island (UHI) was then characterized to determine the spatial-temporal variations in the cities of Metro Manila. Statistical results show that the WRF simulation for 2 m air temperature agrees with measurements with an RMSE of0.80. WRF simulation for relative humidity still presents a challenge where simulation errors are higher than the acceptable range. The addition of UCMs does not necessarily improve the simulation for 2 m air temperature, while the use of BEP improved the 2 m relative humidity simulation. The results suggest the importance of using actual urban morphology values in WRF to accurately simulate near-surface variables. On the other hand, WRF simulation shows the presence of urban heat islands, notably in the northwest and central area of Metro Manila during daytime, extending throughout Metro Manila during nighttime. Lower air temperature was consistently observed in areas near Laguna Lake, while higher air temperature due to stagnant winds was observed in the northwest area of Metro Manila. High heat index was also observed throughout Metro Manila from daytime until nighttime, especially in areas near bodies of water like Manila Bay and Laguna Lake due to high humidity.
Bilang, R.G.J.P., Blanco, A.C., Santos, J.A.S., & Olaguera, L.M.P. (2022). Simulation of Urban Heat Island during a High-Heat Event Using WRF Urban Canopy Models: A Case Study for Metro Manila. Atmosphere, 13(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13101658