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Among the aspects of curriculum that are emphasized in this article are curriculum selection, curriculum development and revision, curriculum implementation, and curriculum reform. Curriculum selection responds to the question of what guides curriculum designers to choose what goes into the curriculum. Guidelines include the aims and purposes of mathematics as expressed in a nation's educational goals and philosophical views that directly inluence content selection. The section on curriculum development and revision highlights two countries' approaches to developing the framework that influences the way mathematical contents are developed and later revised. Finally, curriculum reform often occurs after a successful implementation of innovative projects that address currents trends and issues such as those related to the nature of mathematics, the nature of learners of mathematics, and the nature of teachers of mathematics.