Let G be a nontrivial connected graph and let c : V (G) → be a vertex coloring of G, where adjacent vertices may have the same color. For a vertex υ of G, the color sum σ(υ) of υ is the sum of the colors of the vertices adjacent to υ. The coloring c is said to be a sigma coloring of G if σ(u) ≠ σ(υ) whenever u and υ are adjacent vertices in G. The minimum number of colors that can be used in a sigma coloring of G is called the sigma chromatic number of G and is denoted by σ(G). In this study, we investigate sigma coloring in relation to a unary graph operation called middle graph. We will show that the sigma chromatic number of the middle graph of any path, cycle, sunlet graph, tadpole graph, ladder graph, or triangular snake graph is 2 except for some small cases. We also determine the sigma chromatic number of the middle graph of stars.
Manamtam, J.A., Garciano, A.D., & Tolentino, M.A.C. (2022). Sigma chromatic numbers of the middle graph of some families of graphs. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 2157. 10.1088/1742-6596/2157/1/012001