History, Globalization and Catholicity: A View from the Philippines

Document Type


Publication Date



The lives of two supreme bishops of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Obispo Maximo Gregorio Aglipay (1860-1940) and Obispo Maximo Alberto Ramento (1936-2006) reflect the church's involvement in social and political issues in the Philippines. The article contextualizes the author's personal reflection on the current issues confronting Philippine society as indigenous Catholicity in the form of the IFI contends with the impact of globalization in the local setting. Viewed historically, the involvement of the IFI in the affairs of the nation created an avenue for Philippine Catholic religiosity to contend and confront the economic, political and social concerns that beset the Philippine nation. The lives of the two supreme bishops were manifestations of the church'