Social and Spiritual Kinship in Early-Eighteenth-Century Missions on the Caraballo Mountains

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This article studies social relationships in the early-eighteenth-century missions on the Caraballo Mountains in Luzon. Actors in the region interpreted these relationships in terms of kinship in the wider indigenous sense of the word. Nonconsanguineous persons could become and stay kindred through everyday practices in friendship and maguinoo, baptismal godparenthood and compadrazgo, Christian catechism, community leadership, and ancestor worship. Instead of resorting to cultural generalizations based on present-day anthropological studies or precolonial accounts, this article adopts an inductive approach and focuses on the social interactions themselves, especially on how the actors described how they lived and constructed these affective experiences on a day-to-day basis.