In his response to my review of his book, Ulbe Bosma reiterates that high demographic growth and the consequent abundance of surplus labor as well as local systems of labor control were important factors in the peripheralization of Island Southeast Asia. Colonialism itself, he argues, is not responsible for the making of a periphery.
Aguilar, F. V. (2021). A rejoinder. International Journal of Asian Studies, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1479591421000474