This article ofers an analysis of the ritual character of Philippine elections for national positions, particularly for the presidency. It is argued that the structuring of the electoral complex is akin to a ritual, specifically, a ritualized gamble or game of chance. The cultural figuration of elections is traced to long-term historical processes. The broad insights on Filipino political culture are supported as well as expanded by data collected by the lnstitute of Philippine Culture (PC), Ateneo de Manila University, from sixteen focus group discussions conducted nationwide before national elections were held on 10 May 2004.
Aguilar, F. (2005). Betting on Democracy: Electoral Ritual in the Philippine Presidential Campaign. Philippine Studies, 53(1), 91-118.