The Masara Gold District in southeastern Mindanao island is an area of prolific hydrothermal copper and gold mineralization. This study documents the mineralization characteristics of the NW-trending Bonanza-Sandy epithermal veins to constrain possible hydrothermal fluid sources and ore-forming mechanisms. Epithermal mineralization in the NW veins is divided into three main stages: Stage 1 - massive quartz-sulfide; Stage 2 - massive to amorphous quartz-carbonate (calcite); and Stage 3 - colloform-cockade quartz-carbonate (bladed rhodochrosite). Stage 1 is the main gold mineralization phase, with chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and galena occurring with native gold and tellurides. Stages 2 and 3 contain invisible gold in the sphalerite, galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite. The deposit exhibits mineralization characteristics typical of intermediate sulfidation epithermal deposits based on the dominant chalcopyrite-pyrite mineral assemblage; illite-muscovite-chlorite alteration mineralogy that point to neutral pH conditions; and sphalerite composition of 2.26 to 8.72 mol% FeS in Stage 1 and 0.55 to 1.13 mol% FeS in Stage 2. The K-Ar age date of illite separates from highly altered diorite porphyry of the Lamingag Intrusive Complex yielded an Early Pliocene age (5.12 ± 0.16 Ma). Hydrothermal fluid exsolved from the magma that formed the Lamingag Intrusive Complex probably formed the ore-forming Stage 1 veins. Stages 2 and 3 involved the deposition of quartz and carbonate veins possibly by boiling hydrothermal fluids. Precious and base metal deposition was controlled by the Masara Fault Zone. Exploration markers for gold mineralization in the Masara Gold District and vicinity include the presence of Lamingag Intrusive Complex and massive sulfide veins.
Gabo-Ratio, J. A., Buena, A. E., Villaplaza, B. R. B., Payot, B. D., Dimalanta, C. B., Queaño, K. L., Andal, E. S., & Yumul, G. P. (2020). Epithermal mineralization of the Bonanza-Sandy vein system, Masara gold district, Mindanao, Philippines. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences: X, 4, 100041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaesx.2020.100041