Mineralization parameters and exploration targeting for gold- copper deposits in the Baguio (Luzon) and Pacific Cordillera (Mindanao) Mineral Districts, Philippines: A review

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The Baguio Mineral District in Luzon, Philippines is known to host several world-class epithermal gold – porphyry copper deposits. The interplay of tectonic setting, magma composition, structural control and hydrothermal systems contributed to the generation of these deposits. Ridge subduction (Scarborough seamount) resulting to flat subduction and a transpressional regime could also be related to the formation of epithermal gold - porphyry copper deposits in Baguio. Subduction processes leading to the formation of calc-alkaline rocks associated with high water pressure, oxygen fugacity and late sulfur saturation are almost always associated with the gold-copper deposits in the district. Compared to the Baguio Mineral District, less exploration work, mine development and production were done in the Pacific Cordillera Mineral District, Mindanao in southern Philippines. It is worth noting, however, that both mineral districts show similarities and overlapping features in terms of geological, geophysical and geochemical characteristics. This leads one to conclude that the Pacific Cordillera Mineral District has ore deposits waiting to be discovered.