Direct and indirect impacts of parenthood on happiness
There is an unfavorable evaluation of parenthood whenever the negative indirect impact of parenthood on happiness exceeds the positive direct impact of parenthood on happiness. This situation is also the result of a conflation of these two different effects of parenthood. Public policy can help reinforce the intrinsic meaning of parenthood and reduce the adverse impacts of parenthood on the life domains.
Beja, E.L. Direct and indirect impacts of parenthood on happiness. Int Rev Econ 62, 307–318 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12232-015-0231-2