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Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the primary basis for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, the amount of ECG data of patients makes manual interpretation time-consuming and onerous. Therefore, the intelligent ECG recognition technology is an important means to decrease the shortage of medical resources. This study proposes a novel classification method for arrhythmia that uses for the very first time a three-heartbeat multi-lead (THML) ECG data in which each fragment contains three complete heartbeat processes of multiple ECG leads. The THML ECG data pre-processing method is formulated which makes use of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database as training samples. Four arrhythmia classification models are constructed based on one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) combined with a priority model integrated voting method to optimize the integrated classification effect. The experiments followed the recommended inter-patient scheme of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recommendations, and the practicability and effectiveness of THML ECG data are proved with ablation experiments. Results show that the average accuracy of the N, V, S, F, and Q classes is 94.82%, 98.10%, 97.28%, 98.70%, and 99.97%, respectively, with the positive predictive value of the N, V, S, and F classes being 97.0%, 90.5%, 71.9%, and 80.4%, respectively. Compared with current studies, the THML ECG data can effectively improve the morphological integrity and time continuity of ECG information and the 1D-CNN model of ECG sequence has a higher accuracy for arrhythmia classification. The proposed method alleviates the problem of insufficient samples, meets the needs of medical ECG interpretation and contributes to the intelligent dynamic research of cardiac disease.