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In this paper; a novel self-optimizing water level monitoring methodology is proposed for smart city applications. Considering system maintenance; the efficiency of power consumption and accuracy will be important for Internet of Things (IoT) devices and systems. A multi-step measurement mechanism and power self-charging process are proposed in this study for improving the efficiency of a device for water level monitoring applications. The proposed methodology improved accuracy by 0.16–0.39% by moving the sensor to estimate the distance relative to different locations. Additional power is generated by executing a multi-step measurement while the power self-optimizing process used dynamically adjusts the settings to balance the current of charging and discharging. The battery level can efficiently go over 50% in a stable charging simulation. These methodologies were successfully implemented using an embedded control device; an ultrasonic sensor module; a LORA transmission module; and a stepper motor. According to the experimental results; the proposed multi-step methodology has the benefits of high accuracy and efficient power consumption for water level monitoring applications.