Caries is a dental disease caused by bacterial infection. If the cause of the caries is detected early; the treatment will be relatively easy; which in turn prevents caries from spreading. The current common procedure of dentists is to first perform radiographic examination on the patient and mark the lesions manually. However; the work of judging lesions and markings requires professional experience and is very time-consuming and repetitive. Taking advantage of the rapid development of artificial intelligence imaging research and technical methods will help dentists make accurate markings and improve medical treatments. It can also shorten the judgment time of professionals. In addition to the use of Gaussian high-pass filter and Otsu’s threshold image enhancement technology; this research solves the problem that the original cutting technology cannot extract certain single teeth; and it proposes a caries and lesions area analysis model based on convolutional neural networks (CNN); which can identify caries and restorations from the bitewing images. Moreover; it provides dentists with more accurate objective judgment data to achieve the purpose of automatic diagnosis and treatment planning as a technology for assisting precision medicine. A standardized database established following a defined set of steps is also proposed in this study. There are three main steps to generate the image of a single tooth from a bitewing image; which can increase the accuracy of the analysis model. The steps include (1) preprocessing of the dental image to obtain a high-quality binarization; (2) a dental image cropping procedure to obtain individually separated tooth samples; and (3) a dental image masking step which masks the fine broken teeth from the sample and enhances the quality of the training. Among the current four common neural networks; namely; AlexNet; GoogleNet; Vgg19; and ResNet50; experimental results show that the proposed AlexNet model in this study for restoration and caries judgments has an accuracy as high as 95.56% and 90.30%; respectively. These are promising results that lead to the possibility of developing an automatic judgment method of bitewing film.
Mao, Y.-C., Chen, T.-Y., Chou, H.-S., Lin, S.-Y., Liu, S.-Y., Chen, Y.-A., Liu, Y.-L., Chen, C.-A., Huang, Y.-C., Chen, S.-L., Li, C.-W., Abu, P. A. R., & Chiang, W.-Y. (2021). Caries and restoration detection using bitewing film based on transfer learning with CNNs. Sensors, 21(13), 4613. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134613