The Relationships Between Sequences of Affective States and Learner Achievement

Document Type


Publication Date



We study the relationships between affective states and sequences and learner achievement using sequential pattern mining techniques. We found, in accordance with prior research, that boredom is an undesirable state that is both persistent and detrimental to learning. We also found that confusion punctuated with periods of engaged concentration contributes to learning. However, confusion alone has a negative impact on student achievement, possibly indicating that students are stuck. These results shed light on past results finding inconsistent relationships between confusion and learning.