Mahayana Buddhism is well known for being successfully implanted in various cultures. Chinese Buddhism, considered one of the three great religions of China along with Confucianism and Taoism, is a classic example. From China, Buddhism traveled further and, in the twentieth century, developed a particular way of engaging the world. Humanistic Buddhism, a particular form of engaged Buddhism that grew out of twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism, has been present in the Philippines since the 1990s and signaled a new phase in the growth of Buddhism in the country. In particular, the Philippine initiators of Foguangshan and Ciji did not limit themselves to the ethnic Chinese community from the outset, and both movements have achieved modest success in the last thirty years. By building on previous research with new inputs from key informants, this article explores the emerging localization of Foguangshan and Ciji in the predominantly Catholic Philippines, identifying the particular ways in which the two groups adapted their missions in the country.
Dy, A.C. Buddhist Modernism in the Philippines: Emerging Localization of Humanistic Buddhism. Religions 2022, 13, 220.