Two-step stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis featuring sweeping and micelle to solvent stacking: II. Organic anions
Two-step stacking of organic anions by sweeping and micelle to solvent stacking (MSS) using cationic cetyltrimethylammonium micelles in co-electroosmotic flow (co-EOF) capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is described. The co-EOF condition where the direction of the EOF is the same as the test anions was satisfied by positive dynamic coating of a fused silica capillary with hexadimethrine bromide. The strategy was as follows. After conditioning the capillary with the background solution (BGS), a micellar solution (MS) was injected before the sample solution (S). The BGS, MS and S have similar conductivities. Voltage was applied at negative polarity. The analytes in the micelle-free S zone were swept by micelles from the MS. The swept analytes were brought by the micelles to the MSS boundary where the second stacking step was induced by the presence of organic solvent in the BGS. Finally was the separation of concentrated analytes by CZE. The effect of electrolyte concentration in the S, injection time of the MS and the S and surfactant concentration in the MS were studied. A 20–29, 17–33 and 18–21 times increase in peak height sensitivity was obtained for the test hypolipidaemic drugs (gemfibrozil, fluvastatin and atorvastatin), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diflunisal, naproxen, ketoprofen, indoprofen and indomethacin), and herbicides (mecoprop and fenoprop), respectively. The LODs (S/N = 3) were from 0.05 to 0.55 μg/mL. The intraday and interday repeatabilities (%RSD, n = 12) in terms of retention time, corrected peak area, and peak heights was less than 3.6, 8.9, and 10.8%, respectively. The application of sweeping and MSS in co-EOF CZE together with a simple extraction procedure to a waste water sample spiked with the test herbicides was also demonstrated.
Joselito P. Quirino, Armando M. Guidote, Two-step stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis featuring sweeping and micelle to solvent stacking: II. Organic anions, Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1218, Issue 7, 2011, Pages 1004-1010, ISSN 0021-9673, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.12.095.