Carrageenan for encapsulation and immobilization of flavor, fragrance, probiotics, and enzymes: A review

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Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides obtained from sea weed. There are six types of carrageenans. They have been explored as gelling agents, control release vehicles, and encapsulating agents. It has been established that carrageenans, in the form of gels, beads and films, can efficiently encapsulate flavors, fragrances, probiotics, and enzymes. Flavors and fragrances are encapsulated to reduce their volatility. Probiotic encapsulation results in enhanced stability. Immobilization of enzymes in carrageenans improves their biocatalytic performance and stability. This review has summarized how carrageenans have been extensively investigated as potential encapsulating agents for the above-mentioned attributes.