Mutations in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene create a spectrum of developmental disorders in children in addition to neurodegenerative problems in older populations. Two types of mutations are recognized in the FMR1 gene. The full mutation (>200 CGG repeats) in the FMR1 gene leads to Fragile X Syndrome which is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism, while the premutation (55 to 200 CGG repeats) identified among carriers leads to a range of problems linked to elevated levels of the FMR1 mRNA leading to mRNA toxicity and occasionally mildly deficient FMRP levels. Two disorders among premutation carriers have been recognized namely: the Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI) and Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). Recently, in order to recognize a group of associated disorders commonly found in premutation carriers and extensively reported in co-morbidities studies, a new distinctive name was proposed: Fragile X-associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (FXAND). This paper will present a case report of a female premutation carrier who has encountered predominantly psychiatric problems, but also chronic pain and sleep disturbances consistent with FXAND.
Tan, M. M., Dy, J. B., Salcedo-Arellano, M. J., Tassone, F., & Hagerman, R. J. (2019). Fragile X- associated neuropsychiatric disorders: A case report. Future Neurology, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.2217/fnl-2018-0040