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Objective: The study aimed to determine the factors that influence vaccine hesitancy among parents and caregivers of children 2 years old and younger in selected urban communities in Manila, Philippines.

Methodology: The study used a cross-sectional study design with a modified questionnaire adapted from the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Self-administered surveys were conducted in two highly urbanized barangays (smallest administrative divisions) in Manila, Philippines.

Results: The survey was completed by 110 respondents, comprised mostly of 20–39-year-old mothers. Most respondents (95.5%) believed that vaccines are protective however vaccine hesitancy rates among the respondents reached 36.4%.
Respondents who believed in the protective nature of vaccines were less likely to report vaccine hesitancy and were nine times less likely to refuse vaccination for their children because of negative media exposure. The main reasons identified for vaccine hesitancy were exposure to negative media information and concerns about vaccine safety. The main negative
media information identified by the respondents was related to the dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia®. Health-care workers and political leaders were the main supporters of vaccination in the community.

Discussion: The recent events surrounding the Dengvaxia® controversy contributed to a decrease in vaccine confidence. The role of mass media in vaccine hesitancy was highlighted in this study, supporting previous evidence that vaccine hesitant parents tend to be more susceptible to media reports. The lack of association between sociodemographic factors
and vaccine hesitancy implies that the determinants of vaccine hesitancy can be highly varied depending on context and setting.